Bachelor of Science Cytotechnology and Histotechnology Sciences (BSc CHS)

The BSc CHS programme is designed to develop competencies to:

a) Evaluate Pap smears and other non-gynaecologic specimens for the presence of abnormal cells, and
b) Process and screen biopsy samples for diagnostic purposes.

Entrance Requirements

a) Admission into Level 100 shall be according to performance at BGCSE or equivalent as stipulated by the University with a the specific requirement of a grade B or better in mathematics, chemistry, and biology or
physics and a grade C or better in English, or must have obtained grade A for double science in lieu of the subjects listed here.
b) An applicant who holds Advanced Level passes in Mathematics, Chemistry and Biology/Physics with a grade C or better will be admitted into Level 200 but will be required to take GEC courses COM101 and COM102.
c) An applicant who holds a Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology obtained from the Institute of Health Sciences or its equivalent and registered with Botswana Health Professions Council as a medical laboratory
technician will have advanced placement. He/she will be exempted from Level 100 courses, but will be required to take GEC courses COM101 and COM102.
d) An applicant who holds a BSc degree in biological science/biochemistry or equivalent will be admitted into Level 200 and may be exempted from equivalent courses prescribed in the degree programme, subject to the recommendation of the Department.

Programme Structure

Semester 1

BIO111 Principles of Biology (4)
MAT111 Introductory Mathematics (4)
CHE101 General Chemistry I (4)
COM101 Communication and Academic Literacy Skills (Health Sciences and Pre-Med) (3)
ICT121 Computer Skills Fundamentals I (2)

Semester 2

BIO112 Diversity of Plants and Animals (4)
MAT122 Introductory Mathematics II (4)
CHE102 General Chemistry II (4)
COM102 Health Communication (Health Sciences and Pre-Med) (3 (3)
ICT122 Computer Skills Fundamentals II (2)

Semester 3

PHY161 Physics for Nurses (3)
BIO211 Cell Biology (3)
BIO212 Genetics (3)
BIO231 Human Anatomy (3)
CHS201 Introduction to Cytology and Histotechnology (3)

Semester 4

BIO232 Human Physiology (3)
MLS202 Laboratory Quality Management Systems(3)
CHS202 Introduction to Medical Laboratory Sciences (4)
CHS203 Histotechnology Techniques (3) [Prerequisites CHS201]
CHS204 Histotechnology Techniques Practical (3)

Semester 5

CHS301 Biology of Disease (4)
CHS302 Special Histotechnology Procedures (3) [Prerequisites CHS203, CHS204]
CHS303 Special Histotechnology Procedures Practical (3)
CHS304 Normal Gynaecology Cytology (3)
CHS305 Normal Gynaecology Cytology Practical (3)

Semester 6

CHS306 Abnormal Gynaecology Cytology (3) [Prerequisites CHS304, CHS305).
CHS307 Abnormal Gynaecology Cytology Practical(3)
CHS308 Non-Gynaecology Cytology (3)
CHS309 Non-Gynaecology Cytology Practical (3)
CHS310 Molecular Diagnostics in Cytology and Histology (3) [Prerequisites BIO211]

Winter Semester and Semester 7

CHS401 Histotechnology Clinical Practicum (8) [Prerequisites CHS302, CHS303]
CHS402 Cytology Clinical Practicum (16) [Prerequisites CHS306, CHS307, CHS308, CHS309]

Semester 8

MLS404 Introduction to Biostatistics (3)
MLS405 Research Methods and Proposal Writing (3)
CHS403 Body Fluid Cytology (4)
CHS404 Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (4)

Winter Semester

CHS405 Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology Practicum (4) [Prerequisites CHS403, CHS404]

Semester 9

MLS407 Laboratory Management and Education (3)
MLS409 Research Project (3) [Prerequisites MLS404, MLS405]
CHS406 Slide Screening, Case Studies and Seminars in Cytology (3) [Prerequisites CHS402, CHS405]
Optional Course (3)
Elective Course (3)

Optional Course Menu

ENH222 Epidemiology
FHS200 Health Informatics (3)
LAW441 Law and Health Care (3)
ELC451 Resource Management in Africa (3)
ECO474 Health Economics (3)

Elective Course

One course at Level 400 outside medical laboratory sciences


1. Continuous Assessment shall be according to General Academic Regulations 00.81 shall be based on tests and/or assignments, and where applicable, clinical laboratory practice.
2. Final Examinations shall be conducted according to General Academic Regulations 00.82.
3. The ratio of Continuous Assessment to Final Examination shall be 1:1.

Progression from Semester to Semester

To proceed from one semester to the next, a student must pass at least 50% of the attempted semester credits and have a cumulative GPA of 2.00 or above as specified in General Academic Regulation 00.9.

Award of Degree

To be awarded a degree, a student must satisfy the relevant General Academic Regulations 00.851 and 00.852. The Degree shall be classified in accordance with the provisions of General Academic Regulations 20.4, with the cumulative GPA of 2.0 or above calculated in accordance with General Academic Regulation 00.86.

In pursuit of academic excellence